This has been a critical concern since Essiac tea was introduced in Canada during the early 1920’s. For over 50 years, a humble nurse, Rene Caisse (pronounced Reen Case), used the tea successfully with many terminal cancer patients from her clinic in the tiny Canadian village of Bracebridge, north of Toronto.

At first, she accepted whatever anyone could easily afford, even eggs and produce, for her services. She turned no one down. After 1937, she charged no fees! She didn’t make money off the tea though she successfully treated many hundreds. Her rewards were harassment by the Canadian Health Ministry, and betrayal by a private corporation she had hoped would help make Essiac tea a legal cancer cure.

Though the name of the tea, Essiac, was derived from spelling Rene’s surname Caisse backwards, she was not the original formulator. The ingredients and recipe came originally from an Ojibway Native American medicine man in remote northern Canada.

Rene Caisse was an RN in a Canadian hospital in 1922 when she came upon an elderly patient who had survived breast cancer 30 years earlier. At that time, the woman was living in remote northern Canadian mining camp with her husband. She was admitted to a hospital for breast cancer and told her breasts would have to be removed.

She decided against surgery and went back to the mining camp. In the camp area, she had earlier come upon an Ojibway medicine man who claimed he could cure hercancer. Upon her return, he showed her which herbs to use, how to pick and culture them, and how to prepare the tea. She followed his instructions and within several months was completely cured. She lived in good health for another 30 years.

Since Rene had an aunt and step father with cancer at the time, she was interested in the herbs and how to prepare the tea. So that elderly woman conveyed the Ojbway medicine’s ingredients and recipe to nurse Caisse, who in turn treated her cancer stricken family members. Regarding her stepfather: “It took some time, said Rene, but eventually he was cured.”

From then, she continued with so much success that in 1933 the small town of Bracebridge allowed her to use the defunct British Lion Hotel as a clinic for virtually no rent, one dollar per month. She continued her work in the clinic from 1934 to 1942. Hundreds of Cancer patients were treated successfully, while she charged little or nothing. She cultivated the herbs, brewed the tea in the kitchen, and administered it both orally and by injection.

Of course, during that time and after, Rene Caisse was the center of controversy and harassment from Canadian authorities. She has stated that the only reason she was not imprisoned was because of popular support from Bracebridge’s Town Council, several prestigious doctors, and of course her many cured patients. One of whom was cured of both cancer and diabetes.

The diabetes cure surprised even Rene! Due to this support, from 1937 on, Nurse Caisse was permitted to treat cancer under the strict conditions of 1) treating only terminally ill patients, 2) using an established medical doctor for prognosis and diagnosis, and 3) not accepting any fees for her services. She agreed to those terms and continued.

Regarding her over 50 years of harassment, Rene lamented, “I never dreamed of the opposition and the persecution that would be my lot in trying to help suffering humanity with no thought of personal gain.”

Essiac Makes It’s Way to the USA

Despite so many successfully treated cancer patients’ testimonies, the general public was kept in the dark about Essiac Tea. Caisse made an effort to get the Essiac out into the public light in 1977, a year before her death. She made a deal with a company called Resperin, whom she thought had the clout to legalize her Essiac tea. But Caisse was told she was no longer needed after the agreement.

Resperin was actually in the pocket of the Canadian government and medical authorities. So that project vaporized, and the formula seemed destined to obscurity. Then along came a successful California chiropractor who specialized in treating world class athletes of all types, Dr. Gary Glum. He had heard about Essiac’s healing qualities and started his search for the formula and recipe.

He eventually came upon someone in Detroit, who chooses to remain anonymous, who was cured with Essiac of what was diagnosed as incurable cervical cancer. She had the original formula, and Gary bought it from her. Then Gary went to Canada to interview Mary McPhearson, a close personal friend and assistant to Nurse Caisse before Rene passed on in 1978.

There Dr. Glum also confirmed the authenticity of the formula he had purchased, and uncovered enough information about Rene Caisse and her work to begin writing his book, Calling of an Angel. In that book, Dr. Glum told the story of Rene Caisse, and he told how and where to get the formula, which since has been disseminated all over the western world.

Gary Glum had to self publish the book because it was so threatening to the cancer industry, and there was the danger of slam dunk wrongful death lawsuits on publishers since Essiac was not FDA approved. So no one would risk publishing it. That book and his second, Full Disclosure, which reveals the true source of AIDS as man made and the depopulation agenda, put Glum in harm’s way for some time.

He was harassed by US Marshals and almost completely financially ruined by bogus IRS claims, and a Naval Intelligence operative later threatened his life and the lives of his family if he continued publishing his two books. Only a few of Gary’s books are still available, but there are summarized pdf versions available free on line.

Here’s what Dr. Glum had to say about Essiac for AIDS in an interview circa 1990: “I also worked with the AIDS Project Los Angeles . . . . They had sent 179 patients home to die. They all had pneumocystis carinii and histoplasmosis. Their weight was down to about 100 pounds. Their T-4 cell counts were less than ten.” /SOURCE


Native American culture encompasses any number of symbols from about every animal that one could dream of.

In this article, we’ve narrowed the focus to the ‘birth animals’ – the Native American zodiac. Like the modern horoscope, indigenous tribes also believed that a person born under a particular animal sign would derive certain characteristics from it.

Below are those animal symbols and their characteristics.

Otter: Jan. 20 – Feb. 18

A little quirky, and unorthodox, the Otter is a hard one to figure sometimes. Perceived as unconventional, the Otter methods aren’t the first ones chosen to get the job done. This is a big mistake on the part of others – because although unconventional, the Otter’s methods are usually quite effective.

Yes, the Otter has unusual way of looking at things, but he/she is equipped with a brilliant imagination and intelligence, allowing him/her an edge over every one else. Often very perceptive and intuitive, the Otter makes a very good friend, and can be very attentive. In a nurturing environment the Otter is sensitive, sympathetic, courageous, and honest. Left to his/her own devices, the Otter can be unscrupulous, lewd, rebellious, and isolated.

Wolf: Feb. 19 – March 20

Deeply emotional, and wholly passionate, the Wolf is the lover of the zodiac in both the physical and philosophical sense of the word. The Wolf understands that all we need is love, and is fully capable of providing it. Juxtaposed with his/her fierce independence – this Native American animal symbol is a bit of a contradiction in terms.

Needing his/her freedom, yet still being quite gentle and compassionate – we get the picture of the “lone wolf” with this sign. In a nurturing environment the Wolf is intensely passionate, generous, deeply affectionate, and gentle. Left to his/her own devices the Wolf can become impractical, recalcitrant, obsessive, and vindictive.

Falcon: March 21 – April 19

A natural born leader, the Falcon can always be looked upon for clear judgment in sticky situations. Furthermore, the characteristics for this Native American animal symbol never wastes time, rather he/she strikes while the iron is hot, and takes action in what must be done.

Ever persistent, and always taking the initiative, the Falcon is a gem of a personality to have for projects or team sports. The Falcon can be a little on the conceited side – but he/she is usually right in his/her opinions – so a little arrogance is understood. In a supportive environmental the Falcon “soars” in his/her ability to maintain passion and fire in relationships, and always remaining compassionate. Left to his/her own devices, the Falcon can be vain, rude, intolerant, impatient, and over-sensitive.

Beaver: April 20 – May 20

Take charge, adapt, overcome – this is the Beaver motto. Mostly business, the Beaver is gets the job at hand done with maximum efficiency and aplomb. Strategic, and cunning the Beaver is a force to be reckoned with in matters of business and combat. One might also think twice about engaging the Beaver in a match of wits – as his/her mental acuity is razor sharp.

The Beaver has everything going for him/her – however tendencies toward “my way or the highway” get them in trouble. Yes, they are usually right, but the bearer of this Native American animal symbol may need to work on tact. In a nurturing environment the Beaver can be compassionate, generous, helpful, and loyal. Left to his/her own devices the Beaver can be nervous, cowardly, possessive, arrogant, and over-demanding.

Deer: May 21 – June 20

This Native American animal symbol is the muse of the zodiac. The Deer is inspiring lively and quick-witted. With a tailor-made humor, the Deer has a tendency to get a laugh out of anyone. Excellent ability for vocalizing, the Deer is a consummate conversationalist.

This combined with his/her natural intelligence make the Deer a must-have guest at dinner parties. Always aware of his/her surroundings, and even more aware of his/her appearance, the Deer can be a bit self-involved. However, the Deer’s narcissism is overlooked because of his/her congeniality and affability.

In a supportive environment the Deer’s natural liveliness and sparkly personality radiate even more. He/she is an inspiring force in any nurturing relationship. Left to his/her own devices the Deer can be selfish, moody, impatient, lazy, and two-faced.

Woodpecker: June 21 – July 21

Woodpeckers are usually the most nuturing of all the Native American animal symbols. The consummate listener, totally empathic and understanding, the Woodpecker is the one to have on your side when you need support.

Of course, they make wonderful parents, and equally wonderful friends and partners. Another proverbial feather in the Woodpeckers cap is the tendency to be naturally frugal, resourceful, and organized. In a nurturing environment the Woodpecker is of course caring, devoted, and very romantic. Left to his/her own devices the Woodpecker can be possessive, angry, jealous, and spiteful.

Salmon: July 22 – Aug. 21

Electric, focused, intuitive, and wholly creative, the Salmon is a real live-wire. His/her energy is palpable. A natural motivator, the Salmon’s confidence and enthusiasm is easily infectious. Soon, everybody is onboard with the Salmon – even if the idea seems too hair-brained to work.

Generous, intelligent, and intuitive, it’s no wonder why the Salmon has no shortage of friends. This Native American animal symbol expresses a need for purpose and goals, and has no trouble finding volunteers for his/her personal crusades. In a supportive environment, the Salmon is stable, calm, sensual, and giving.

Left to his/her own devices, those that bear this Native American animal symbol can be egotistical, vulgar, and intolerant of others.

Bear: Aug. 22 – Sep. 21

Pragmatic, and methodical the Bear is the one to call when a steady hand is needed. The Bear’s practicality and level-headedness makes him/her an excellent business partner. Usually the voice of reason in most scenarios, the Bear is a good balance for Owls. The Bear is also gifted with an enormous heart, and a penchant for generosity.

However, one might not know it as the Bear tends to be very modest, and a bit shy. In a loving environment this Native American animal symbol showers love and generosity in return. Further, the Bear has a capacity for patience and temperance, which makes him/her excellent teachers and mentors. Left to his/her own devices the bear can be skeptical, sloth, small-minded and reclusive.

Raven: Sep. 22 – Oct. 22

Highly enthusiastic, and a natural entrepreneur, the Crow is quite a charmer. But he/she doesn’t have to work at being charming – it comes easily. Everyone recognizes the Crow’s easy energy, and everyone turns to the Crow for his/her ideas and opinions.

This is because the Crow is both idealistic and diplomatic and is quite ingenious. In nurturing environments this Native American animal symbol is easy-going, can be romantic, and soft-spoken. Further, the crow can be quite patient, and intuitive in relationships. Left to his/her own devices, the Crow can be demanding, inconsistent, vindictive, and abrasive.

Snake: Oct. 23 – Nov. 22

Most shamans are born under this Native American animal symbol. The Snake is a natural in all matters of spirit. Easily attuned to the ethereal realm the Snake makes an excellent spiritual leader. Also respected for his/her healing capacities, the Snake also excels in medical professions. The Snake’s preoccupation with matters intangible often lead others to view them as mysterious, and sometimes frightening.

True, the Snake can be secretive, and a bit dark – he/she is also quite sensitive, and caring. In a supportive relationship the cool Snake can be passionate, inspiring, humorous, and helpful. Left to his/her own devices, the Snake can be despondent, violent, and prone to abnormal mood swings.

Owl: Nov. 23 – Dec. 21

Changeable and mutable as the wind, the Owl is a tough one to pin down. Warm, natural, with an easy-going nature, the Owl is friend to the world. The bearer of this Native American animal symbol is notorious for engaging in life at full speed, and whole-hearted loves adventure.

This can be to his/her detriment as the Owl can be reckless, careless, and thoughtless. Owls make great artists, teachers, and conservationists. However, due to his/her adaptability and versatility – the Owl would likely excel in any occupation. In a supportive, nurturing environment the Owl is sensitive, enthusiastic, and an attentive listener. Left to his/her own devices, the Owl can be excessive, overindulgent, bitter, and belligerent.

Goose: Dec. 22 – Jan. 19

If you want something done – give it to the Goose. Persevering, dogged, and ambitious to a fault, the Goose sets goals for accomplishment, and always obtains them. The goose is determined to succeed at all cost – not for the approval of other – but those with this Native American animal symbol competes with his/her own internal foe.

Driven is the watchword for the Goose’s dominating personality trait – which makes them excellent in business and competitive sports. When tempered with supportive, nurturing family and friends, the Goose excels in all things he/she attempts.

In a loving environment the Goose can be very passionate, humorous, gregarious, and even sensual. However, lead to his/her own devises, the Goose may fall into obsessive or addictive behaviors that will inevitably be his/her demise.

Special Thanks to for this information!

Senate Confirms First-Ever Native American Woman As Federal Judge

WASHINGTON — The Senate quietly made history on Wednesday night when it confirmed Diane Humetewa as a federal judge — the first Native American woman to ever hold such a post.

Humetewa was confirmed 96-0 to serve on the U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona. She is a former U.S. attorney in Arizona and a member of the Hopi tribe. She is now the only Native American serving on the federal bench and just the third Native American in history to do so.

Her confirmation elicited a rare moment of bipartisan celebration on Twitter from the White House and Republican senators:

The National Congress of American Indians also celebrated Humetewa’s achievement.

“NCAI greatly appreciates the efforts of the President and Senate in achieving this historic confirmation,” the organization said in a statement. “There are many qualified, talented people like Diane Humetewa in Indian Country who are able and willing to serve. We eagerly anticipate many more nominations of Native people to the federal bench and other offices.”

12 Native American Quotes About Children

“We were all children once. And we all share the desire for the well-being of our children, which has always been and will continue to be the most universally cherished aspiration of humankind.” – We the Children.

1-Native Philosophy To The Children

As an eagle prepares its young to leave the nest will all the skills and knowledge it needs to participate in life, in the same manner so will I guide my children. I will use the culture to prepare them for life.
The most important thing I can give to my children is my time. I will spend time with them in order to learn from them and to listen to them.
We are the caretakers of the children for the Creator. They are His children, not ours.
I am proud of our own Native language. I will learn it if I can and help my children to learn it.

In today’s world it is easy for the children to go astray, so I will work to provide positive alternatives for them. I will teach them the culture. I will encourage education. I will encourage sports. I will encourage them to talk to the Elders for guidance; but mostly, I will seek to be a role model myself.
I make this commitment to my children so they will have courage and find guidance through traditional ways.

2- Remember that your children are not your own, but are lent to you by the Creator. – Mohawk Proverb

3- Even the seasons form a great circle in their changing, and always come back again to where they were. The life of a person is a circle from childhood to childhood, and so it is in everything where power moves. Black Elk

4- We must protect the forests for our children, grandchildren and children yet to be born. We must protect the forests for those who can’t speak for themselves such as the birds, animals, fish and trees. Qwatsinas

5- Treat the earth well. It was not given to you by your parents, it was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit the Earth from our Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children. ~ Native Proverb ~

6- You must teach your children that the ground beneath their feet is the ashes of your grandfathers. So that they will respect the land, tell your children that the earth is rich with the lives of our kin. Teach your children what we have taught our children, that the earth is our mother. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth. If men spit upon the ground, they spit upon themselves.

7- Children are a gift from the heavens.

8- Grown men can learn from very little children, for the hearts of the little children are pure. Therefore, the Great Spirit may show to them many things which older people miss.

9- Being spiritual is remembering. It is remembering that the first thing that was gifted to you when you came into being was the spirit.

10- The life of a person is a circle from childhood to childhood. Within each child lies our future and our past. Anon Saying (First People of Kanata )

11- Above all, let us set the children free, break the traps of fear that history has fashioned for them. Free to grow, to seek and question, to dance and sing, to be dreamers of tomorrow’s rainbows. and if we but give them our trust, they will guide us to a New Creation, for love is life believing in itself.

12- Sometimes adults think they know more than the children. But the children are closer to the truth. Have you ever noticed how quickly they can let go of resentments? Have you ever noticed how free they are of prejudice? Have you ever noticed how well the children listen to their bodies? Maybe adults need to be more like children. Black Elk /Source

Native Americans Explain Why You Should Point Lips, Not Fingers

Most of us, regardless of our heritage, have been taught that it is rude to point at a person, but few people will go to such great effort to avoid pointing as indigenous people of the western hemisphere. For native people, it isn’t just people that you shouldn’t point at, but also trees and animals, homes, graves, regalia and medicine items. Why?

There are several explanations. “Native people were familiar with their surroundings”says Aldo Seoane of the Mayo nation. “Not only with other members of their family, clan, or nation, but also with the plants, animals and physical features of their surroundings. These had names”.

Pointing to an object or person is unnecessary when you can describe it with a name or word, and when the person you are conversing with knows the name or description of the subject intimately. There were few things that were unfamiliar. You wouldn’t need to point out a stranger; their unfamiliarity would be quite obvious.

Pointing would also have been confusing in communicating, since there was a system of sign language that often bridged the gap between native peoples who spoke different languages. The sign made to ask someone their name is about as close to pointing as this language comes, and it is done with the palm toward the person making the sign, and the index finger pointing upward as much as toward the person in question. Pointing is perceived, with somewhat universal agreement among tribal people, to be accusatory. As one Hupa grandmother told her grand daughter, “finger pointing was an accusation of someone doing something bad and that was a way of telling on that person”. She said “there was always a silent agreement among our people to never tell on one another”.

There is another all-important factor that is often not expressed with regard to pointing, whether it is at a person or an object. There is energy, or medicine, relating to all living things. To point at someone could be perceived as affecting them with your energy, or taking theirs. When you live with a conscious awareness of the physical, spiritual and energetic presence of those around you, pointing takes on additional gravity.

As one Creek woman from Green Country, Oklahoma put it, “We don’t point with our fingers or hands. I think that it is not just rude, but also because some people use their hands for medicine, and so it creeps people out. It’s rude to make people feel like you might be doing something when you are not. It’s also bad to touch people you aren’t close to unless you are shaking hands at certain times. Even then, many people are still uncomfortable about that…no touching and no pointing…may be someone puttin’ their bad on you”.

“I was taught that by pointing your finger you were taking away a person or thing’s spirit” said Christina of Berrien Springs, Michigan.

It is safe to say that most Native American nations avoid pointing, and teach various reasons why it should not be done. Michael Reifel, a tribal member of the San Carlos Apache nation, was raised by his adoptive parents, a Chickasaw mother and a Lakota father. His upbringing was a blend of private schools and traditional values, and both of his parents taught him not to point with his hand or fingers, but to use his lips or chin to indicate a person or direction. When he returned to the San Carlos Reservation, he was quick to observe that this was also the way of his nation of birth.

“My parents taught me by example” Michael recalls. “They never made a big scene over my behavior. There was never any reprimanding in public. They would use their chin or their lips to point, and quietly discourage the use of hands or fingers. They didn’t offer a lot of explanation. I just caught on to what the right behavior was by their example”. Not everyone has been raised with this sensitivity. “I would say that younger people, let’s say forty and under, are much more likely to point unabashedly and without a second thought” Michael reflected. “Usually when I see elders use their hands to point, they do it in a general way, without fully extending their fingers, and keeping their palms upturned, almost the way you would use your hands to tell a story or survey a landscape”./SOURCE

True Story: Native American Women Warriors in American History.

When the Europeans first began arriving on this continent they were amazed that Indian women were very much unlike European women.

Indian women were not subservient to men, they often engaged in work – such as farming and warfare – which the Europeans viewed as men’s work, they had a voice in the political life of their communities, and they had control of their own bodies and sexuality. Unlike the patriarchal European societies, Indians were often matrilineal, a system in which people belonged to their mother’s clans or extended families. When Indian people spoke of a neighboring tribe as “women” or as “grandmothers”, the Europeans often misinterpreted this compliment as a derogatory statement.

During the nineteenth century Indian women, and particularly Indian women leaders, were invisible to the American government. Some Indians have gone so far as to say that the Americans were so afraid of Indian women that they would not allow them to sit or speak in treaty councils with the United States government. Even today, Indian women are conspicuous by their absence in American history.

Europeans have always viewed war as “men’s work” and their interpretations of Indian warfare, as seen through the writings of non-Indian historians and anthropologists, assume that only Indian men were warriors. They often fail to see that women warriors were common among Indian people. Women warriors went with their husbands on the war party. Some of the examples of nineteenth century women Indian warriors are briefly described below.

Fallen Leaf (often called Woman Chief by the Americans): While Fallen Leaf was a Crow warrior, she was actually born to the Gros Ventre nation and was captured by the Crow when she was 12. After she had counted coup four times in the prescribed Crow tradition, she was considered a chief and sat in the council of chiefs. In addition to being a war leader, she was also a good hunter and had two wives.

Running Eagle: she became a Blackfoot (Piegan) warrior after her husband was killed by the Crow. To avenge her husband’s death, she sought help from the Sun and was told “I will give you great power in war, but if you have intercourse with another man you will be killed”. After this she became a very respected war leader and led many successful raids on the large Flathead horse herds west of the Rocky Mountains. She was on a raid in Flathead country when she was killed. She had had sexual relations with one of the men in her war party and for this reason lost her war power.

Colestah: In the 1858 battle of Spokane Plains in Washington, Yakama leader Kamiakin was nearly killed when a howitzer shell hit a tree and the tree branch knocked him from his horse. Riding into battle with Kamiakin was his wife Colestah who was known as a medicine woman, psychic, and warrior. Armed with a stone war club, Colestah fought at her husband’s side. When Kamiakin was wounded, she rescued him, and then used her healing skills to cure him.

Buffalo Calf Robe: In the 1876 battle of the Rosebud in Montana, American troops under the leadership of General Crook along with their Crow and Shoshone allies fought against the Cheyenne and Lakota Sioux. The Shoshone and Crow shot the horse of Cheyenne Chief Comes in Sight out from under him. As the warriors were closing in to finish him off, Buffalo Calf Robe (aka Calf Trail Woman), the sister of Comes in Sight, rode into the middle of the warriors and saved the life of her brother. Buffalo Calf Robe had ridden into battle that day next to her husband Black Coyote. This was considered to be one of the greatest acts of valor in the battle.

Moving Robe: One of the best-known battles in the annals of Indian-American warfare is the 1876 Battle of the Greasy Grass in Montana where Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer was defeated. One of those who lead the counterattack against the cavalry was the woman Tashenamani (Moving Robe). In the words of Lakota warrior Rain-in-the-Face:

“Holding her brother’s war staff over her head, and leaning forward upon her charger, she looked as pretty as a bird. Always when there is a woman in the charge, it causes the warriors to vie with one another in displaying their valor.”

It is evident from the words of Rain-in-the-Face, that having a woman lead an attack was not unknown to Lakota warriors.

DNA Testing Proves Native American Genealogy To Be Among The Most Unique In The World

The systematic destruction of the Native Americans, First Nations, Metis and Inuit people and their entire way of life was not only one of recorded history’s greatest tragedies, but, as with the slave trade, deeply spiritually wounding to all involved. The utter decimation of their culture is one of the most shameful aspects of our history, the extent of the damage still being down-played and denied entry into textbooks and history-lessons to this day.

The importance of such efforts cannot be overstated. The threads of these ancient cultures – having existed here for tens of thousands of years prior to the arrival of the ‘pioneers’ – no matter how tenuous they may currently be, must be preserved, strengthened and woven back into a quilt that tells the unique story of not only their past, but of their bright future as well.

For two decades, researchers have been using a growing volume of genetic data to debate whether ancestors of Native Americans emigrated to the New World in one wave or successive waves, or from one ancestral Asian population or a number of different populations.

“Our work provides strong evidence that, in general, Native Americans are more closely related to each other than to any other existing Asian populations, except those that live at the very edge of the Bering Strait,” said Kari Britt Schroeder, a lecturer at the University of California, Davis, and the first author on the paper describing the study.

“While earlier studies have already supported this conclusion, what’s different about our work is that it provides the first solid data that simply cannot be reconciled with multiple ancestral populations,” said Schroeder, who was a Ph.D. student in anthropology at the university when she did the research.

“If natural selection had promoted the spread of a neighboring advantageous allele, we would expect to see longer stretches of DNA than this with a similarly distinct pattern,” Schroeder said. “And we would also have expected to see the pattern in a high frequency even among people who do not carry the 9-repeat allele. So we can now consider the positive selection possibility unlikely.” The results also ruled out the multiple mutations hypothesis. If that had been the case, there would have been myriad DNA patterns surrounding the allele rather than the identical characteristic signature the team discovered. “There are a number of really strong papers based on mitochondrial DNA – which is passed from mother to daughter – and Y-chromosome DNA – which is passed from father to son – that have also supported a single ancestral population,” Schroeder said. “But this is the first definitive evidence we have that comes from DNA that is carried by both sexes.”